DBS in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits has proven to be an effective treatment in OCD and other psychiatric disorders. By conducting fMRI studies in awake rats, I assess changes in functional connectivity within CSTC circuits resulting from DBS and optogenetic stimulation in various target areas. In a second project, in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Liesbeth Reneman (Radiology, AMC), I measure changes in functional brain connectivity after MDMA exposure using phMRI. Finally, in collaboration with Dr. Janna Cousijn (Psychology, UvA) and Dr. Heidi Lesscher (Veterinary Medicine, UT), I use fMRI to look at brain activity in reaction to alcohol-related odor cues in awake rats. By looking at alcohol exposed adolescent and adult rats, I examine the effect of different levels of alcohol intake on brain functioning in different age groups.