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Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Publication year 2016
Published in Journal of Child Neurology
Authors Danique Jeurissen, Belen Rubio, Aaron D Boes, Simon Laganiere, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone,
The order of authors may deviate from the original publication due to temporary technical issues.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are 2 methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, whereas daily use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review, we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population.

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