PublicationsPupillometry to differentiate idiopathic hypersomnia from narcolepsy type 1
Idiopathic hypersomnia is poorly diagnosed in the absence of biomarkers to distinguish it from other central hypersomnia subtypes. Given that light plays a main role in the regulation of sleep and wake, we explored the retinal melanopsin-based pupil response in patients with idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy type 1, and healthy subjects. Twenty-seven patients with narcolepsy type 1 (women 59%, 36 ± 11.5 years old), 36 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (women 83%, 27.2 ± 7.2 years old) with long total sleep time (> 11/24 hr), and 43 controls (women 58%, 30.6 ± 9.3 years old) were included in this study. All underwent a pupillometry protocol to assess pupil diameter, and the relative post-illumination pupil response to assess melanopsin-driven pupil responses in the light non-visual input pathway. Differences between groups were assessed using logistic regressions adjusted on age and sex. We found that patients with narcolepsy type 1 had a smaller baseline pupil diameter as compared with idiopathic hypersomnia and controls (p < 0.05). In addition, both narcolepsy type 1 and idiopathic hypersomnia groups had a smaller relative post-illumination pupil response (respectively, 31.6 ± 13.9% and 33.2 ± 9.9%) as compared with controls (38.7 ± 9.7%), suggesting a reduced melanopsin-mediated pupil response in both types of central hypersomnia (p < 0.01). Both narcolepsy type 1 and idiopathic hypersomnia showed a smaller melanopsin-mediated pupil response, and narcolepsy type 1, unlike idiopathic hypersomnia, also displayed a smaller basal pupil diameter. Importantly, we found that the basal pupil size permitted to well discriminate idiopathic hypersomnia from narcolepsy type 1 with a specificity = 66.67% and a sensitivity = 72.22%. Pupillometry may aid to multi-feature differentiation of central hypersomnia subtypes.