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Regulatory aspects of the human hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis

Research group Kalsbeek
Publication year 2017
Published in Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Authors Ferdinand Roelfsema, Anita Boelen, A. Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers

Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, differentiation and metabolism during prenatal and postnatal life. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis is optimized for these actions. Knowledge of this hormonal axis is derived from decades of experiments in animals and man, and more recently from spontaneous mutations in man and constructed mutations in mice. This review examines the HPT-axis in relation to 24 h TSH profiles in men in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including obesity, age, longevity, and primary as well as central hypothyroidism. Hormone rhythms can be analyzed by quantitative methods, e.g. operator-independent deconvolution, approximate entropy and fitting the 24-h component by Cosinor analysis or related procedures. These approaches have identified some of the regulatory components in (patho)physiological conditions.

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