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Sleep disturbances and incident risk of major depressive disorder in a population-based cohort

Publication year 2024
Published in Psychiatry research
Authors Geoffroy Solelhac, Théo Imler, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Nicola Andrea Marchi, Mathieu Berger, Jose Haba-Rubio, Tifenn Raffray, Virginie Bayon, Anne Sophie Lombardi, Setareh Ranjbar, Francesca Siclari, Peter Vollenweider, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Pierre-Alexis Geoffroy, Damien Léger, Aurélie Stephan, Martin Preisig, Raphaël Heinzer

Sleep disturbances are well-known symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the prospective risk of MDD in the presence of sleep disturbances in a general population-based cohort is not well known. This study investigated associations between both polysomnography (PSG)-based or subjective sleep features and incident MDD. Participants representative of the general population who had never had MDD completed sleep questionnaires (n = 2000) and/or underwent PSG (n = 717). Over 8 years' follow-up, participants completed psychiatric interviews enabling the diagnosis of MDD. Survival Cox models were used to analyze associations between sleep features and MDD incidence. A higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale and presence of insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with a higher incidence of MDD (hazard ratio [HR] [95 % confidence interval (CI)]: 1.062 [1.022-1.103], p = 0.002 and 1.437 [1.064-1.940], p = 0.018, respectively). Higher density of rapid eye movements in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a higher incidence of MDD in men (HR 1.270 [95 % CI 1.064-1.516], p = 0.008). In women, higher delta power spectral density was associated with a lower MDD incidence (HR 0.674 [95 % CI 0.463-0.981], p = 0.039). This study confirmed the associations between subjective and objective sleep features and the incidence of MDD in a large community dwelling cohort.

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