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The infundibular peptidergic neurons and glia cells in overeating, obesity, and diabetes

Research group Kalsbeek
Publication year 2021
Published in Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Authors M.J.T. Kalsbeek, C.X. Yi

Dysfunctional regulation of energy homeostasis results in increased bodyweight and obesity, eventually leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The infundibular nucleus (IFN) of the hypothalamus is the main regulator of energy homeostasis. The peptidergic neurons and glia cells of the IFN receive metabolic cues concerning energy state of the body from the circulation. The IFN can monitor hormones like insulin and leptin and nutrients like glucose and fatty acids. All these metabolic cues are integrated into an output signal regulating energy homeostasis through the release of neuropeptides. These neuropeptides are released in several inter- and extrahypothalamic brain regions involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. This review will give an overview of the peripheral signals involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the peptidergic neurons and glial cells of the IFN, and will highlight the main intra-hypothalamic projection sites of the IFN.

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