Support our work
Decorative header background

Whole-liver flip-angle shimming at 7 T using parallel-transmit kT -point pulses and Fourier phase-encoded DREAM B 1 + mapping

Publication year 2023
Published in Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Authors Bobby A Runderkamp, Thomas Roos, Wietske van der Zwaag, Gustav J Strijkers, Matthan W A Caan, Aart J Nederveen

PURPOSE: To obtain homogeneous signal throughout the human liver at 7 T. Flip angle (FA) shimming in 7T whole-liver imaging was performed through parallel-transmit kT -point pulses based on subject-specific multichannel absolute B 1 + $$ {mathrm{B}}_1^{+} $$ maps from Fourier phase-encoded dual refocusing echo acquisition mode (PE-DREAM).

METHODS: The optimal number of Fourier phase-encoding steps for PE-DREAM B 1 + $$ {mathrm{B}}_1^{+} $$ mapping was determined for a 7T eight-channel parallel-transmission system. FA shimming experiments were performed in the liver of 7 healthy subjects with varying body mass index. In these subjects, first B 0 $$ {mathrm{B}}_0 $$ shimming and Fourier PE-DREAM B 1 + $$ {mathrm{B}}_1^{+} $$ mapping were performed. Subsequently, three small-flip-angle 3D gradient-echo scans were acquired, comparing a circularly polarized (CP) mode, a phase shim, and a kT -point pulse. Resulting homogeneity was assessed and compared with estimated FA maps and distributions.

RESULTS: Fourier PE-DREAM with 13 phase-encoding steps resulted in a good tradeoff between B 1 + $$ {mathrm{B}}_1^{+} $$ accuracy and scan time. Lower coefficient of variation values (average [min-max] across subjects) of the estimated FA in the volume of interest were observed using kT -points (7.4 [6.6%-8.0%]), compared with phase shimming (18.8 [12.9%-23.4%], p < 0.001) and CP (43.2 [39.4%-47.1%], p < 0.001). kT -points delivered whole-liver images with the nominal FA and the highest degree of homogeneity. CP and phase shimming resulted in either inaccurate or imprecise FA distributions. Here, locations having suboptimal FA in the estimated FA maps corresponded to liver areas suffering from inconsistent signal intensity and T1 -weighting in the gradient-echo scans.

CONCLUSION: Homogeneous whole-liver 3D gradient-echo acquisitions at 7 T can be obtained with eight-channel kT -point pulses calculated based on subject-specific multichannel absolute Fourier PE-DREAM B 1 + $$ {mathrm{B}}_1^{+} $$ maps.

Support our work!

The Friends Foundation facilitates groundbreaking brain research. You can help us with that.

Support our work